The time cut 1800 is a watershed moment in terms of the advent of modernity. While Europe was quickly increasing in global strength and power, China was still the world’s largest power in 1800. This lecture discusses the world in the midst of a radical transformation that was deeply connected to social and industrial revolutions. In particular, this lecture discusses the impact of the American and French revolutions on Enlightenment ideas, resulting in the first set of democracies that chartered the path, however circuitous and fitful, that led to the end of the monarchic institution, to be replaced by that of the nation and the nation-state. Neoclassicism, neo-Greek movements, and the non-classical Gothic traditions all show in their unique ways these transformations through the built environment, as architects expressed new ideas of authenticity and nationalism through their designs.
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